Music Teacher Training in Estonia
III. Learning and Teaching Approaches
V. Current and Future Challenges
I. Background / Organisation
The Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre (EAMT) provides both academic and professional teacher training for instrumental teachers and for primary, basic and secondary school music teachers at all academic levels. Tartu University and Tallinn University offer teacher training programmes for pre-school, primary and basic school music teachers.
A strong foundation is created on the Bachelor’s degree level for development as a music teacher, and the basic knowledge and skills are provided, but completing this level of study does not by itself confer the right to work as a teacher in full standing. This requires 300 ECTS. Graduates of the Bachelor programme can work as conductors of amateur choirs, leaders of music hobby groups or continue studies in the Master’s programme.
Graduates of the Master’s degree programme can become music teachers at Estonian upper secondary schools and basic schools, and the leaders of amateur choirs, school bands and musical hobby groups. There is the opportunity to continue studies in the EAMT music pedagogy Doctorate programme or in the field of educational sciences at universities.
The Continuing Education Centre, in cooperation with the Music Education Institute and other academic units, is responsible for the opportunities for students to develop in their desired direction after they graduate from the academy. Elective subjects help to ensure diversity within the programmes as do opportunities to take electives at other Estonian universities to study for a semester or two at a foreign university (using the possibility of grants from the Erasmus programme and other foundations).
According to the 2002 curriculum reform of higher education, all Estonian universities had to implement either a 3+2 or a 4+1 system instead of the common 4-year Bachelor + 2-year Master system. EAMT chose the 4+1 system for its curricula. According to the 2002 curriculum reform of higher education, all Estonian universities had to implement either a 3+2 or a 4+1 system instead of the common 4-year Bachelor + 2-year Master system. EAMT chose the 4+1 system for its curricula. This reform did not affect the Bachelor studies very much. However, the Master programmes were changed considerably.
The Music Education Institute of the Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre (EAMT) is responsible for implementing the following programmes:
· A Bachelor music education study programme;
· A one-year Master music education study programme:
· A Doctoral music pedagogy study programme.
Table 1: Curricula in the EAMT
The general objective of all three levels of this study programme is to prepare teachers to be:
· competent and capable in many areas of music to be able to direct people`s musical development;
· competent to create conditions for the development of the individual as a whole, using music as a tool;
· open to self-development – meaning that they have well developed powers of reflexive and critical (including self-analytical) thinking.
Other competences cited in the general objective are the following:
· Practical competence in the area of music;
· Competence in the area of educational sciences;
· Philosophical and reflexive competence;
· Intellectual or cognitive competence.
Both the Bachelor degree programme and the one-year Master degree programme consist of four content modules:
· Courses in Educational Science;
· Courses in Music Performance;
· Courses in Music Theory and History;
· Courses in Social Sciences and Humanities.
BACHELOR OF ARTS
Students specialising in music education are required to have multifaceted musical abilities, prerequisites and interest in working as a music teacher at a general educational school, a wide general cultural outlook, a healthy vocal apparatus and singing skills. Curriculum for Bachelors degree programme at the EAMT:
Table 2: Compulsory courses
Table 3: Elective Courses
MASTER OF ARTS
The objectives of the Master’s study programme are the following, based on the general objective of the study programme as a whole:
· In the research branch: to develop integrative thinking through a work of research and to support the development of a teacher-researcher;
· In the pedagogical branch: to promote the development of a music teacher with high practical competence in the field of music, also possessing powers of integrative thinking.
The curriculum consists of a Master thesis and Master studies with the following make up of ECTS:
· Compulsory Courses (41 ECTS);
· Elective Courses (16 ECTS);
· Free Elective Courses (3 ECTS).
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
The aim of the doctorate program in Music pedagogy is to produce the next generation of scholars in the field and to train future music higher educational institution lecturers. The curriculum consists of a doctoral dissertation and doctoral studies with the following make up of ECTS:
· Compulsory Courses (219 ECTS including the doctoral dissertation with 180 ECTS);
· Elective Courses (12 ECTS);
· Free Elective Courses (9 ECTS).
III. Learning and Teaching Approaches
Studies in musical subjects take place predominantly within individual lessons. The main learning methods are practice, practical work and independent work.
The cycle of speciality educational science subjects includes a lecture-based course as well as seminars. A lot of video material is used in didactics for analyzing music lessons.
Table 4: Study forms in the EAMT
IV. Assessment / Examination
To apply for a programme leading to the lower university degree, students are required to have completed the Estonian secondary school or other education of equivalent level. Assessment takes place continuously in the course of the study process, through feedback in the form of praise, encouragement or constructive criticism. The following table illustrates the overall number of examinations in music education study programmes and the relative proportion of oral, practical and written examinations.
Table 5: Total amount of examinations
Table 6: The Bachelor Programme
Table 7: The Master Programme
Table 8: The Doctoral Programme
V. Current and Future Challenges
Recent curriculum development activities and plans for the coming years include:
· The development of the Bachelor and Master study programmes by transforming them into competence based and internationally competitive programmes;
· The achievement of innovatory study processes.
The content and implementation of curricula are continuously analysed and assessed both at the department and at the academy levels. An important source of information for these activities is the recommendations of the alumni, employees and external experts.
The rector's office and academic staff of the EAMT have studied carefully the recommendations made by the expert 2007 accreditation team. The EAMT Development Plan for 2005-2009 places emphasis upon continued re-organisation and further development of the curricula, paying special attention to developing outputs of curricula on different levels. Collaboration with other higher education institutions and the Ministry of Education and Research is seen to be an important part of this. There is also a focus upon participating in EU collaborative projects for starting the interdisciplinary joint curricula. Two major curriculum issues are currently being discussed at the EAMT:
· The question of what would be better for EAMT, a 4+1 system or 3+2 system? The current 4+1 system certainly has some strong points but it also creates some major problems on the Masters level, such as comparability with other institutions and possibilities for student exchanges etc.
· How to develop interdisciplinary joint curricula and an international summer semester? EU Intensive Projects in August 2005-2007 have established good grounds for starting with international summer semesters. Different options for joint curricula such as conducting, electronic and multimedia composition and cultural management, have also been intensively discussed.